Starting from Sabang to Merauke, Indonesia has 17,499 islands with a total area of 7.81 million km2. Of the total area, 3.25 million km2 is ocean and 2.55 million km2 is the Exclusive Economic Zone. Only about 2.01 million km2 is land. With the vast marine area, Indonesia has enormous marine and fishery potential.
Fisheries are one of the sectors that are relied upon for national development. It is certain that the wealth of Indonesian marine products includes marine fish, shrimp, seaweed, squid, octopus, and so on.
The types of marine fish are grouped into several categories, including;
Demersal fish are fish that live and feed on the seabed and lakes (demersal zone).Their environment is generally in the form of mud, sand, and rocks, rarely there are coral reefs.So based on this definition, demersal fish can be found from the coastal environment to the deep sea zone (abyssal zone), and are mostly found in environments near the sea ridge. Demersal fish as opposed to pelagic fish that live close to the surface of the water. Demersal fish contain less oil (one to four percent of their body mass), when compared to pelagic fish which can reach 30 percent.<br>So demersal fish including white meat fish, for example, Red Snapper, Grouper, Kaci-kaci Fish and so on
Pelagic fish are a group of fish that are in the surface layer of the water. The main characteristic of this type of fish is to move in groups and migrate. Small pelagic fish usually live on the reef and move from place to place. Caught with fishing gear in the form of nets, such as gill nets, ring nets, ring seines, and others. Usually, pelagic fish are found near coral reefs or ledges. Where the current is warm near the coast. Based on their size, pelagic fish are divided into two, namely: Large pelagic fish, such as tuna, skipjack, tuna, and others.<br>Small pelagic fish, such as scad, anchovies, mackerel, and others. pelagic fish are usually referred to as oily fish. This is because fish in the pelagic group contain up to 30 percent oil in their body tissues and in the abdominal cavity.<br>pelagic fish that contain a lot of oil, such as mackerel, marlin, wahoo, tuna, sardines, barracuda, and others.
Cephalopods have well-developed brains and some species have the ability to remember well, and even learn. Humans use cephalopod members as food and in industry. This animal has a characteristic that it has tentacles equipped with suckers, for example, squid and cuttlefish, and octopus.
Crustaceans or crustaceans are a large group of arthropods, consisting of approximately 52,000 described species, and are usually considered a subphylum. The majority are aquatic animals, both freshwater and marine, although some groups have adapted to land life, such as land crabs. This group includes well-known animals such as lobsters, crabs, shrimp, crayfish, and barnacles.